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Greek Participles

The participle is verb being a verbal adjective, and is often translated "-ing". The participle has tense (present, aorist & perfect) and voice (active, middle & passive).

 

General participle morphenes

  masculine feminine neuter
active ντ ουσα ντ
mid/pass μενη

Formation and morphemes

Continuous

Present (continous) participle: active
Present tense stem + Connecting vowel + Active participle morpheme + Case endings

  masculine feminine neuter
nom sg ων ουσα ον
gen sg οντος ουσης οντος

 

Present (continous) participle: middle/passive
Present tense stem + Connecting vowel + Middle/passive morpheme + Case endings

  masculine feminine neuter
nom sg ομενος ομενη ομενον
gen sg ομενου ομενης ομενου

Aroist

First aroist participle:active
Reduplication + Perfect tense stem + Participle morpheme + Case endings

  masculine feminine neuter
nom sg σας σασα σαν
gen sg σαντος σασης σαντος

 

First aroist participle: middle
Reduplication + Perfect tense stem + Participle morpheme + Case endings

  masculine feminine neuter
nom sg σαμενος σαμενη σαμενον
gen sg σαμενου σαμενης σαμενου

 

First aroist participle: passive
Reduplication + Perfect tense stem + Participle morpheme + Case endings

  masculine feminine neuter
nom sg θεις θεισα θεν
gen sg θεντος θεισης θεντος

 

Second aroist participle: active
Reduplication + Perfect tense stem + Participle morpheme + Case endings

  masculine feminine neuter
nom sg ων ουσα ον
gen sg οντος ουσης οντος

 

Second aroist participle: middle
Reduplication + Perfect tense stem + Participle morpheme + Case endings

  masculine feminine neuter
nom sg ομενος ομενη ομενον
gen sg ομενου ομενης ομενου

 

Second aroist participle: passive
Reduplication + Perfect tense stem + Participle morpheme + Case endings

  masculine feminine neuter
nom sg εις εισα εν
gen sg εντος εισης θεντος

 

Perfect

Perfect participle: active
Reduplication + Perfect tense stem + Tense formative (κ) + Participle morpheme + Case endings

  masculine feminine neuter
nom sg κως κυια κος
gen sg κοτος κυιας κοτος

 

Perfect participle: middle/passive
Reduplication + Perfect tense stem + Participle morpheme + Case endings

  masculine feminine neuter
nom sg μένος μένη μένον
gen sg μένου μένης μένου

 

 

Identifying and translating the participle

Two types of Participle

  1. Adverbial participles describe an action that is related to the verb
  2. Adjectival participles modify a noun or pronoun, and functions like a noun

Seven Questions:

  1. What is case, number and gender of the participle and what word is it modifying?
  2. Is the action directed toward a verb (adverbial) or noun (adjectival)?
  3. If adverbial: use "—ing", key words, while, after, because. Must be anarthrous
  4. If adjectival: is it attributive modifying: "-ing" with key words "who" or "which" or it is substantive functioning: the one who
  5. Aspect: continuous, undefined or completed
  6. Voice: active, middle or passive
  7. Meaning: Sipplest form are the "-ing" with key words while or because.

 

Infinitive morpheme chart

Tense/Voice
Stem t/c Morpheme Principle forms
Present Active
pres ο ντ / ουσα
ων, ουσα, ον
οντος, ουσης, οντος
Present Middle
pres ο μενο / η
ομενος, ομενη, ομενον
ομενου, ομενης, ομενου
1 aorist act
aorist act σα ντ/σα
σας, σασα, σαν
σαντος, σασης, σαντος
1 aorist mid
aorist act σα μενο / η
σαμενος...
1 aorist pass
aorist pas θε ντ
θεις, θεισα, θεν
θεντος, θεισης, θεντος
2 aorist act
aorist act ο ντ / ουσα
ων...
2 aorist mid
aorist act ο μενο / η
ομενος...
2 aorist pass
aorist pas ε ντ
εις, εισα, εν
εντος, εισης, εντος
Perfect act
perf act κ οτ
κως, κυια, κος
κοτος, κυιας, κοτος
Perf mid/pas
perf mid/pas   μενο / η
μένος, μένη ...

 

Genitive Absolute (translation is idiomatic)

 

  • By definition, an 'absolute' has no direct grammatical relationship to the rest of the sentence. e.g. "Lord willing, we will arrive at noon."
  • The genative absolute consists of a noun or pronoun, and participle in the genitive.
  • The participle may have additional modifiers.
  • Genitive absolutes tend to occur at the beginning of sentences.
  • αὐτοῦ often functions as subject in genitive absolute

 

  • e.g. Present: αὐτοῦ ἐρχομένου – "(he) while coming"

  • e.g. Aorist: αὐτοῦ ἐλθόντος – "(h e) after coming"

  • e.g. Perfect: αὐτοῦ λελυκότος – "(he) having loosed"

     

    Example: Καὶ εὐθέως, ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος, παραγίνεται ᾿Ιούδας (Mark 14:43)
    And immediately, while he was yet speaking, Judas comes up (JND)

 

Periphrastic Constructions

  • In English the helping verb "will" is used, but in Greek such helping words are not used.
  • A periphrastic construction (of one type) is when εἰμί and a participle is used together to convey a single idea.
  • Tends to emphasize continuous aspect commonly, and often in the 3rd person plural, perfect middle/passive e.g.: "ἐστε σεσῳσμένοι" formed with ειμί + participle
Present
present εἰμί
+ present participle
Imperfect
imperfect ἤμην
+ present participle
Future
future ἔσομαι
+ present participle
Perfect
present εἰμί
+ perfect participle
Pluperfect
imperfect ἤμην
+ perfect participle
Future perfect
future ἔσομαι
+ perfect participle

 

Participle of εἰμί (being)

 

Case
Mas
Fem
Neut
Nom
ὤν
οὖσα
ὄν
Gen
ὄντος
οὔσης
ὄντος
Dat
ὄντι
οὔσῃ
ὄντι
Acc
ὄντα
οὖσαν
ὄν
 
Nom
ὄντες
οὖσαι
ὄντα
Gen
ὄντων
οὐσῶν
ὄντων
Dat
οὖσι (ν)
οὔσαις
οὖσι (ν)
Acc
ὄντας
οὔσας
ὄντα

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