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Greek Verbs: The μι Verbs

The Five Rules of μι verbs (anthematic)

 

The Five Rules of μι verbs (anthematic)

 

  1. μι verbs reduplicate in the present - the initial stem letter separated by
    iota: δο -> διδο -> διδωμι
  2. μι verbs do not ordinarily use a connecting vowel in the indicative (ie are athematic)
  3. μι verbs use three different personal endings in the present active indicative
    1st singular: διδωμι, 3 singular: διδωσι(ν), 3 plual διδόασι(ν)
  4. μι verb stem vowels can lengthen, shorten or drop out (ablaut)
  5. Most μι verbs use κα in the aorist (kappa aorists)

 

Present Indicative Active: four different examples of μι verbs

 

Present Indicative Active: four different examples of μι verbs)
Alpha Class
ἵστημι
Root Stem: στα
Stem: ἱστα
To stand
Epsilon Class
τίθημι
Root Stem: θε
Stem: τιθε
To put
Omicron Class
δίδωμι
Root Stem: δο
Stem: διδο
To give
Upsilon Class
δείκνυμι
Root Stem: δεικ
Stem: δεικνυ
To show
1st ἵστημι τίθημι δίδωμι δείκνυμι
2nd ἵστης τίθης δίδως δεικνύεις
3rd ἵστησι(ν) τίθησι(ν) δίδωσι(ν) δείκνυσι(ν)
1st ἵσταμεν τίθεμεν δίδομεν δείκνυμεν
2nd ἵστατε τίθετε δίδοτε δείκνυτε
3rd ἱστᾶσι(ν) τιθέασι(ν) διδόασι(ν) δεικνύασι(ν)
The stem is the present stem. Note the 3rd person singular form of δείκνυμι

 

Future Indicative Active: four different examples of μι verbs

The μι verbs in future tense use the aorist stem, that is, the root stem so that the endings are exactly the same as they are on the future tense forms of λύω. Note also root stem δεικ has the sigma future morph to it so the kappa transforms into the double consonant xi (ξ).

 

Future Indicative Active: four different examples of μι verbs
Alpha Class
ἵστημι
Root Stem: στα
Stem: ἱστα
To stand
Epsilon Class
τίθημι
Root Stem: θε
Stem: τιθε
To put
Omicron Class
δίδωμι
Root Stem: δο
Stem: διδο
To give
Upsilon Class
δείκνυμι
Root Stem: δεικ
Stem: δεικνυ
To show
1st στήσω θήσω δώσω δείξω
2nd στήσεις θήσεις δώσεις δείξεις
3rd στήσει θήσει δώσει δείξει
1st στήσομεν θήσομεν δώσομεν δείξομεν
2nd στήσετε θήσετε δώσετε δείξετε
3rd στήσουσι(ν) θήσουσι(ν) δώσουσι(ν) δείξουσι(ν)

 

 

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