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Greek Infinitive

An infinitive is a verbal noun and is not declined. It has no time significance (because it is not an indicative) and has the aspects: continous, underfined or perfected. These can be translated as "to continually run" (continous), "to run" (underfined) and "to have ran" (perfected).

Infinitive morphemes

 

  Present 1st Aorist 2nd Arost Perfect
Active ειν σαι ειν κεναι
Middle εσθαι σασθαι εσθαι σθαι
Passive εσθαι θηναι ηναι σθαι
         
Active to loose to loose to receive to have loosed
Middle to loose to loose to receive to have loosed
Passive to be loose to be loose to be written to have been
All end in αι except present active and second aorist active. Note also the augment is not used in the aorist.

Uses of the Infinitive

  1. Substantive: το ἐσθιεν ὲστιν ἀγαθον (To eat is good)
  2. Complementary
  3. Articular nfinitive and preposition
    1. Result:
      1. δια because
      2. εἰς in order that
      3. πρὸς in order that
    2. Temporal:
      1. πρὸ before (in time)
      2. ἐν when/while (in time)
      3. μετὰ after (in time)
  4. Purpose
      1. εἰς or πρὸς b) articular in genitive c) by itself
  5. Result: ὥστε ie which results in the fact that
  6. Negate with μή

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