Greek - The Indicative Verb

Formation of Indicative verb

(Augment +) Stem + (Tense formative +) Connecting vowel + Personal ending, where the parts in brackets are used in some cases.

The Greek Indicative

The indicative verb provides informaion from the presepctive of the writer or speaker. The voice indicates the relationship between the subject and the verb:

  1. Active voice: the subject is doing the action: The boy patted the cat
  2. Middle voice: the subject is participating in the results of the action. This is somewhat different from English: He is teaching the truth (διδάσκεται τὴν ἀλήθειαν)
  3. Passive voice: the subject receives the action: The boy was patted by the cat


Notes on verbal rules

Primary endings: Unagmented tenses, Indicative present, future and perfect

Secondary endings: Augmented tenses, Indicative imperfect, aorist and pluperfect

Alternative endings: μι verbs use alternative endings

Augments: imperfect, aorist and plup[erfect, but not if non-indicative

Reduplication: perfect and present. If with ε then perfect, if ι then μι verb

Tense formatives: often use an ε in the 3rd singular: 1st aorist active/middle (σε), liqued (ε), perfect (κε)

Connecting vowels (ο/ε): present, imperfect, future, second aorist and participles

Contract vowels: contract i the present and imperfect, else lengthen, contractions occur in liquid futures

Primary active 3rd plural: ν will usually drop out


Indicative Verb Paradigm using λύω or λειπω

Present Indicative
Tense Active Middle Passive
  am/is/are loosing loose for self/selves am/is/are being loosed
1st s λύω λύομαι λύομαι
2nd s λύεις λύῃ λύῃ
3rd s λύει λύεται λύεται
1st pl λύομεν λυόμεθα λυόμεθα
2nd pl λὐετε λύεσθε λύεσθε
3rd pl


λύονται λύονται


Imperfect Indicative
Tense Active Middle Passive
  was/were/loosing was/were loosing
for self/selves
was/were being loosed
1st s ἔλυον ἐλυὀμην ἐλυὀμην
2nd s ἔλυες ἐλύου ἐλύου
3rd s ἔλυε ἐλύετο ἐλύετο
1st pl ἐλύομεν ἐλυόμεθα ἐλυόμεθα
2nd pl ἐλύετε ἐλύεσθε ἐλύεσθε
3rd pl ἔλυον ἐλύοντο ἐλύοντο


Future Indicative
Tense Active Middle Passive
  shall/will loose shall/will loose for self/selves shall/will be loosed
1st s λὐσω λὐσομαι λυθήσομαι
2nd s λύσεις λύσῃ λυθήσῃ
3rd s λύσει λύσεται λυθήσεται
1st pl λύσομεν λυσόμεθα λυθησόμεθα
2nd pl λὐσετε λύσεσθε λυθήσεσθε
3rd pl


λύσονται λυθήσονται


Aroist Indicative
Tense Active Middle Passive
  loosed loosed for self/selves was/were loosed
1st s ἔλυσα ἐλυσάμην ἐλύθην
2nd s ἔλυσας ἐλύσω ἐλύθης
3rd s ἔλυσε ἐλύσατο ἐλύθη
1st pl ἐλύσαμεν ἐλυσάμεθα ἐλύθημεν
2nd pl ἐλύσατε ἐλύσασθε ἐλύθητε
3rd pl





2nd Aorist Indicative
Tense Active Middle Passive
  left left for self/selves was/were left
1st s ἔλιπον ἐλιπόμην ἐλίπθην
2nd s ἔλιπες ἐλίπου ἐλίπθης
3rd s ἔλιπε(ν) ἐλίπετο ἐλίπθη
1st pl ἐλίπομεν ἐλιπόμεθα ἐλίπθημεν
2nd pl ἐλίπετε ἐλίπεσθε ἐλίπθητε
3rd pl ἔλιπον ἐλίποντο ἐλίπθησαν
λειπω to leave, to fail be absent, lack


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