The Basics of Koine Greek Verbs

Parts that make up a verb

(Reduplication +) or (Augment +) Tense Stem + (Tense formative +) Connecting vowel (which may lengthen) + Personal ending (primary or secondary).
The participle requires a participle morpheme + case ending and imperative requies an imperative morpheme.

The Verb

Person: every verb has a person, therefore an expressed subject is not required.

First: ἐγὠ, εἰμί
Second: συ, εἶ
Third: αὐτός, λόγος




Refers to the action of the verb: these times are past, present or future.


Refers to the form of the verb — it carries two notions: form of the word and time of action. It is best to speak of tense in terms of the form of the verb, not the time.

Imperfect: only in indicative mood expressing linear action in past time — an action that use to occur in the past

Present: action in present time, or ongoing action

Future: action that will occur in the future

Aorist: indefinite stating the fact of an action with no duration, 1) inceptive, 2) constative, 3) cuminative

Perfect Active: an action that has been fully completed. In the indicative it describes and action that has been brought to a completion and whose effect is still being felt.

Perfect Middle: The action in some ways affects the subject (cf active — subject does the action; passive — subject receives the action)

Aorist Passive: Future event time undefined ("I will be graded")

Pluperfect: An action that was completed and whose effects are felt at a time after the completion but before the time of the speaker.

Future perfect: An action about to be completed.

Aspect: The type of action the verb describes, so is related to, but no the same as tense.

I walk
I walked
I will walk
I am walking
I was walking
I will be walking

Voice: deals with who does the action

Active: the subject does the action
Passive: the subject receives the action
Middle: the action in some ways affects the subject

Mood: relates the verb to reality

Indicative: (bounded) describes something that is rather than might be ie the mood of reality, it therefore has no time significance — only aspect is significant. It can be present i.e. continuous or aorist i.e. undefined.

Subjunctive: (arranged beneath) describes something that might or may be ie is the mood of possibility

Imperative: (commanded) used to make a command in the present to aorist tense.

Infinitive: (not indicated) a verbal noun, has tense (present, aorist, perfect) and voice, but no person or number. They often complete important ideas.

Participle: (sharing) a verbal adjective, has tense and voice, and is similar to adding "ing" to words "sweeping". It can behave as an adverb (never has an article) with the action directed towards the verb, or as an adjective (attributive, substantive or predicate) — may have an article), where it modifies a noun or pronoun or functions like a noun.

Principal Parts of the Verb

Principal Parts of the Verb


λύω ἀποστέλλω
Future active
λύσω ἀποστελῶ
Aorist active
ἔλυσα ἀπεστειλα
Perfect Active
λέλυκα ἀπέσταλκα
Perfect Middle
λέλυμαι ἀπέσταλμαι
Aorist/Future Passive
ἐλύθην ἀπεστάλην


Abbreviations used in parsing

Person, Tense, Mood, Voice — Case, Number, Gender, Comparison or
Person, Mood, Tense, Voice — Gender, Number, Case, Comparison (V-AAP-MSN)
Parts of Speech
V – Verb
I – Indicative
S – Singular
N – Noun
M – Imperative
P – Plural
Adv – Adverb
S – Subjunctive
Adj – Adjective
N – Infinitive
M – Masculine
Art – Article
P – Participle
F – Feminine
O – Optative
N – Neuter
1 – 1st Person
2 – 2nd Person
A – Active
C – Comparative
3 – 3rd Person
M – Middle
S – Superlative
P – Passive
P – Present
M/P – Middle or Passive
I – Imperfect
F – Future
N – Nominative
A – Aorist (2A if second)
G – Genitive
R or T – Perfect
D – Dative
L – Pluperfect
A – Accusative
R – Future Perfect
V – Vocative

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