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Greek Conjunctions

In English conjunctions join parts of a sentence together, (hence the latin term, conjungo from whence we get conjunction), but in Greek the conjunction can start a sentence - connecting two sentences. They can be difficult to translate properly. Read Daniel B Wallace Greek Grammar - Beyond the Basics for a better understanding (1996, Zondervan, USA).

Coordinating Conjunctions (linking equal parts)

Greek Likely translation
ἀλλά but, rather, on the contrary; adds emphasis or contrast; not only this but also
ἄρα consequently, therefore, then, thus, so
ἆρα interrogative particle expecting a negative response
γάρ for, since, then; for, you see; indeed, certainly, by all means
δέ but, to the contrary, rather; and; now, then, so
διόπερ therefore indeed, for this very reason
εἴτε if, whether
or; than
ἤτοι or
καί and, also, but, even; that is, namely; frequently used merely to mark the beginning of a sentence
μήτε and not
οὐδέ neither, nor, and not; not, not even
οὖν therefore, then; thus, so, accordingly
οὔτε not, no, nor
τέ and; and so, so
τοίνυν inferential particle therefore, then, for that very reason then

 

Subordinating Conjunctions (links dependent clause to an independent clause)

Greek Likely translation
ἐάν if; even if, though; when; sometimes used as particle indicating contingency in certain constructions
εἰ if; whether; that; if only, surely; since
εἴπερ since, if it is true that
ἐπάν when, as soon as
ἕως conj. until; while; prep. with gen. to, until, as far as, to the point of; as many as
ἡνίκα when
ἤπερ than
ἵνα in order that; so that; that; with subj. sometimes = impv.
ἱνατί conj. why? for what reason?
καθό as, according as; in so far as, to the degree that
καθότι because, for; as, in so far as
καθώς as, just as; inasmuch as, because; in so far as, to the degree that; how, that
καθώσπερ as, just as
καίτοιγε although, and yet
ὅπου where; whereas, while
ὅπως that, in order that
ὅταν when, whenever, as often as
ὅτε when, at which time; while, as long as
ὅτι that; because, for, since; may mark the beginning of direct discourse
πρίν before
πῶς interrog. particle how? in what way? how is it possible?
ὡσεί like, as; about, approximately
ὥσπερ as, just as, even as; like
ὡσπερεί as, as though
ὥστε that, so that, with the result that; in order that, for the purpose of; therefore, thus, so, accordingly

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