Differences between the Millennium and Eternal State

The following is a brief description of the difference between the Messianic Kingdom, referred to as the Millennium, because it will be for 1000 years, and the final Eternal State of Heaven and Earth. The latter we have few details as it has pleased the Lord not to reveal in depth many aspects of the journey of believing humanity beyond the Messianic Kingdom.

Note the following does not contain an exhaustive list of verses. A keen student is encouraged to read such books as “The Footsteps of the Messiah” by Arnold Fruchtenbaum (Ariel Ministries, USA, 2004) which provides comprehensive references for the reasoning for our understanding of these two great periods in God’s governance.


Millennium (Rev 20:1-10)

Eternal State (Rev 21-22)

Known as: Millennium (Revelation 20:6), Kingdom of God, Kingdom of Heaven, Kingdom of Our Lord and of His Christ, Messianic Kingdom (Rev 11:15), The Age to Come (Matthew 12:32, Mark 10:30, Luke 18:30), Davidic Kingdom (2 Sam 7:11-16)

Known as: The Eternal State, or Kingdom of God, The New Heaven and New Earth (Rev 21:1)

Residents: Redeemed of Israel and the nations, ruled by the Messiah (Jer 23:5-6; Micah 4:1-4)

Residents: Tod, angels, and redeemed people (Heb 12:22-24)

Length: 1000 years (Rev 20:1-6)

Length: For ever and ever (Rev. 22:5)

Preceded by the Tribulation (Rev 19:1, Rev 20:1-6) – the period of judgement of Israel (for rejecting Messiah) and nations (for rejecting the gospel)

Preceded by the Rebellion (Rev 20:7-10)

Place: Present earth (Gen. 13:17)

Place: the New Earth (Rev. 21:1)

Seas cover much of the earth as part of God’s judgement (Gen. 1:2, 15:18-21)

No sea because there is no sin (Rev. 21:1)

The Earth will be renovated, and become bountiful (Is 65:17, 2 Peter 3:13). Parts will still be desolate e.g. Babylon - South Iraq between the Tigris and Euphrates (Is 13:19-22; Jer 50:39-40; 51:41-43; Rev 18:1-3).

Totally new (Rev 21:1, 2 Peter 3:10), thus there will be a Jerusalem (Rev 21:9-27)

Some will rebel (Zech. 14:16-18)

No rebellion (Rev. 21:4)

Tribal land (Ezek. 47:13-23)

Tribal city gates (Rev. 21:12)

Sin exists but no tempter (deceiver) until the end (Ezek 45:22)

No sin or tempter (deceiver) (Rev. 21:4)

Temple re-established (Ezek. 40‒46)

No temple (Rev. 21:22)

Justice: applied by Jesus the Messiah, the King of the World (Zech 14:9, 1 Corinthians 15:24-26,  Rev 11:15), under a system of civil law (Is 22:2-3, Micah 4:1-2)

Justice will not be required as sin will not exist to be judged (Rev 21:27) but God the Father will reign, since all enemies have been dealt with by the Son (Psa 110:1, 1 Corinthians 15:24-26)

Death – sinners will die once they have attained 100 years of age (Isa 65:20)

No death (Rev. 21:4)

Human condition: some poor (Micah 4:4), some afflicted, at least initially (Isa 35:5-6), some will reject the Saviour (Is 11:4, 65:20; Rev 20:7-9), some will not keep the Feast of Tabernacles and be punished (Zech 14:19), some nations will perish or suffer drought (Is 60:12, Zech 14:16-19, Rev 20:9).

Perfect condition – no more tears, no more crying (Rev 21:4)

Rod of iron (Ps. 2:6-8)

No rod needed (Rev. 21:8)

Satan: Tied up (Rev 20:2)

Satan is banished for ever in the lake of fire (Rev 20:10)

The power of Satan: Let loose for a time at the end of 1000 years to deceive the nations (Rev 20:8)

Satan is powerless (Rev 20:10)

Sun exists (Isa. 30:26)

No sun (Rev. 21:23; 22:5) – light is provided by the Son

Status of Israel: Saved remnant (Rom 9:27-29) and Redeemed Old Testament saints will occupy the covenant land in peace, prosperity and security (Ez. 28:25-26; 34:25-31; Is 30:23-26)

Israel will dwell on earth (Rev 21:24)

Status of the Church: With Jesus Christ (1 Thes 4:16), co-rulers of earth (Jude 1:14-15)

With Christ in the New Jerusalem (Rev 21:9,10)

Status of Gentiles: Old Testament saints e.g. Noah, and those saved during the tribulation are on earth and worship in Jerusalem (Ps 72:8-11; Zech14:16-21; Rev 20:1-7)

Will dwell on earth (Rev 21;24)



David L Simon 4 August 2018 (Amended 23 Feb 2020)
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