The Messiah Foretold
The Jews were waiting for the Messiah from the day of Abraham. But the first glimpse of the Messiah is shown to Adam after his fall, was foretold by Israel and again by Baalam. Moses looked forward to the day of the Messiah, which Jesus alluded to. David’s throne is the throne on which the Messiah shall ascend, which will last for ever.
The Messiah is foreshadowed in the Old Testament (for David was a type of Christ). David spoke much of the Messiah as did other psalmists eg. Psalm 2, noting in this Psalm the Father, The Son and the Holy Spirit speak to each other, Psalm 9, Psalm 21 and Psalm 40. Zion is spoken much of in the Old Testament as the place of reign of the coming Messiah – that is Jerusalem. All these things the Jews looked forward to.
Prophecy of Christ’s suffering
The suffering and humiliation of Christ is clearly foretold; indeed, the Gospel, notably Matthew demonstrates the truthfulness of the prophecies in Jesus Christ: see Psalm 22, Psalm 16, Psalm 40, and Isaiah 53 etc. Isaiah outlines the suffering of the Messiah for the sins of the people; he was to come to his own (Israel) and be rejected, he suffered for the sins: he borne our grief, carried our sorrows; he was stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted and he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities and by this we can have peace, and by his suffering we can, through faith have our sins washed way (Isaiah 53).
Prophecy on the nature of Messiah and his coming
The nature of the Messiah is shown in various portions of the Old Testament – especially the Prophets. Isaiah 11 shows him to be the king and ruler over the house of David in the time to come, and demonstrates the rightness of him being the heir to the throne, arising from the tribe of Judah, the rightful holder of the sceptre (See Psalm 45 & Isaiah 66). He was to come physically (prophecy is to be read literally – see how Daniel read and interpreted the prophets), and as saviour as shown in Isaiah 53, which also clearly foretold of his suffering for our sake.
The Old Testament is also very specific as to when, where and how he was to be born. For instance Bethlehem was prophesied to be his birthplace, born into the tribe of Judah (see endnote , also Matthew 1, Luke 3), at a time of great turmoil (Jeremiah 31:15 & Matthew 2:18), after the second temple was repaired etc. Jesus did not come into the world unannounced, but the prophets stated a forerunner would first appear. This was John the Baptist (see Matthew 3, John 1:19, Luke 3 etc).
Jer 23:5 Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth.
Zec 9:9 Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he [is] just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass.
Zec 12:10 And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for [his] only [son], and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for [his] firstborn.
Isaiah 40:3 The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our God.